On the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah — that is the Day of Tarwiyah, he left for Mina where he performed the noon, the afternoon, the sunset, the evening and the dawn prayers. — i.e. five prayers. Then he stayed for a while till the sun rose up then he passed along till he reached ‘Arafah, where there was a tent built for him at Namirah. He sat inside till the sun went down. He ordered that Al-Qaswa’, his she-camel, should be prepared for him. They saddled it and had it ready, so he went down the valley where a hundred and twenty-four or forty-four thousand people were gathering round him.
There he stood up and delivered the following speech:
“O people! Listen to what I say. I do not know whether I will ever meet you at this place once again after this current year. It is unlawful for you to shed the blood of one another or take (unlawfully) the fortunes of one another. They are as unlawful, (Haram) as shedding blood on such a day as today and in such a month as this Haram month and in such a sanctified city as this sacred city (i.e. Makkah and the surrounding areas).”
“Behold! All practices of paganism and ignorance are now under my feet. The blood revenge of the Days of Ignorance (pre-Islamic time) are remitted. The first claim on blood I abolish is that of Ibn Rabi‘a bin Harith who was nursed in the tribe of Sa‘d and whom Hudhail killed. Usury is forbidden, and I make a beginning by remitting the amount of interest which ‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul Muttalib has to receive. Verily, it is remitted entirely.”
“O people! Fear Allâh concerning women. Verily you have taken them on the security of Allâh and have made their persons lawful unto you by Words of Allâh! It is incumbent upon them to honour their conjugal rights and, not to commit acts of impropriety which, if they do, you have authority to chastise them, yet not severely. If your wives refrain from impropriety and are faithful to you, clothe and feed them suitably.”
“Verily, I have left amongst you the Book of Allâh and the Sunnah (Traditions) of His Messenger which if you hold fast, you shall never go astray.”
“O people, I am not succeeded by a Prophet and you are not succeeded by any nation. So I recommend you to worship your Lord, to pray the five prayers, to fast Ramadan and to offer the Zakat (poor-due) of your provision willingly. I recommend you to do the pilgrimage to the Sacred House of your Lord and to obey those who are in charge of you then you will be awarded to enter the Paradise of your Lord.”
“And if you were asked about me, what wanted you to say?”
They replied: “We bear witness that you have conveyed the message and discharged your ministry.”
He then raised his forefinger skywards and then moved it down towards people while saying: “O Allâh, Bear witness.”
He said that phrase thrice.
The one who repeated the Prophet’s [pbuh] statements loudly at ‘Arafat was Rabi‘a
bin Omaiyah bin Khalaf.
As soon as the Prophet [pbuh] had accomplished delivering the speech, the following
Qur’ânic verse was revealed to him:
“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon
you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” [Al-Qur’an 5:3]
Upon hearing this verse ‘Umar cried. “What makes you cry?” He was asked. His
answer was: “Nothing succeeds perfection but imperfection.”